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Abortion

Definition

Aborting the fetus or in the medical world is known by the term “abortion” is the termination of pregnancy before the age of 20 weeks gestation or weight of  fetus is less than 500 g (when the fetus has not been able to live outside the womb) . The incidence of abortion increased with increasing age and the presence of a history of previous abortion. The process of abortion can take place:

1. Spontaneous / natural (occurs naturally, without any action)
2. Artificial / deliberate (intentional abortion),
3. Therapeutic / Medical (abortions performed on medical indications for the presence of any problems or complications).

In the study in the United States there are 1.2 to 1.6 million abortions chances in the last 10 years and is the choice of American women to unwanted pregnancies. Overall, the whole world, abortion is the main cause of death than cancer or heart disease.

Reason

Abortion is a woman does become pregnant have a variety of reasons, good reasons both medical and non-medical reasons. According to the study of Aida Torres and Jacqueline Sarroch Forrest (1998), states that only 1% of cases of abortion due to rape or incest (sexual intercourse one blood), 3% due to endanger the lives of expectant mothers, and 3% because the fetus will grow with a disability serious. While 93% of cases of other abortions are due to non-medical reasons such as do not want to have children, citing fears disrupt career or school, do not have enough money to care for children, and do not want to have children without fathers.

Cause

The cause of spontaneous abortion varied include infection, hormonal factors, cervical deformities, immunological factors (immune system), and diseases of the mother. The cause of abortion in general are divided over fetal factors and maternal factors.

Fetal factors

In general, spontaneous abortions that occur due to factors caused by the presence of fetal abnormalities in fetal development [such as chromosomal abnormalities (genetic)], disturbances in the placenta, as well as accidents in the fetus. The frequency of occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities (genetic) in the first quarter amounted to 60% range.

Maternal factors

Several issues related to maternal factors that may cause spontaneous abortion is the parent of genetic factors that play a role as the carrier (carrier) in the genetic disorder; infection in pregnancy, such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, gonorrhea, hormonal disorders such as hyperthyroidism, diabetes is Uncontrolled; heart defects, congenital abnormalities of the uterus, such as bicornu uterus (uterine horns), sepsis uterine (a membrane barrier in it) and uterine scar due to a history of previous uterine curettage or surgery. Myomas of the uterus is also associated with the incidence of spontaneous abortion.

Risk factors associated with the occurrence of abortion is:

1. Advanced maternal age
2. History of previous pregnancies that are less well
3. History of infertility (no children)
4. Abnormalities or diseases that accompany pregnancy
5. Infection (smallpox, toxoplasma, etc.)
6. Exposure to various chemical substances (cigarettes, drugs, alcohol, radiation)
7. Trauma to the abdomen or pelvis in the first 3 months of pregnancy
8. Abnormalities of chromosomes (genetic)

Signs and Symptoms

1. Lower abdominal pain
2. Cramps in uterus
3. Back pain
4. Bleeding from the pubic
5. The opening of the cervix
6. Discharge fetus from the womb

Examination

Examination needs to be done is an ultrasound examination, blood tests, and hormonal examination of B-hCG levels.

Management of post-abortion

Tests to find the cause of spontaneous abortion using ultrasound or B-hCG levels over the next 1-2 months. After experiencing abortion, mothers are encouraged not to become pregnant during the first 3 months later (if necessary use condoms or contraceptive pills).

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